The Affection of Independent Innovation on Employment (Report) by Management Science and Engineering

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The concept, innovation, was first introduced by Joseph Schumpeter into economics. In Schumpeters theory, innovation is to build a new production function, which means a new combination of production factors or production conditions. Schumpeter (1939, 1961) viewed innovation as a creative destruction, because increasing investment in new products and new technology will wipe out the employment opportunities offered by old industries and old technology. Industry variations continually change the economic structure thoroughly from within, continually destroy old industries and create new industries. One batch of enterprises after another was washed out by the wave of innovation, while one batch of enterprises after another rises in the wave of innovation. The combination of capital, labor and other production factors is optimized in the process of innovation, however, rigidity and inertia of the old investment pattern will impede capital investment transferring from the static sectors to the innovative sectors, and then lead to capital mismatch and structural unemployment. Furthermore, as the technological innovation drives society and economy forward in waves, its impact on total employment and employment structure is cyclical. In the initial stage of innovation, total employment grows slowly or even declines, while employment structure does not change significantly; In the continual development stage of innovative, there are rapid increases in total employment and marked changes in employment structure; In the final stage of innovation, changes both in total employment and employment structure are gradually diminishing and a next innovation is going to brew. Economic structure constantly shifts in the periodic cycle, while relations between employment structure and technological innovation circularly switch from coordinated to uncoordinated and then once again to coordinated. Neo-Schumpeterian represented by Carlota Perez, Christopher Freeman, et al. have amended and developed Schumpeters study on the employment effects of technological innovation. Perez (1983) believes that a significant technological innovation will inevitably cause social institutions to change, but adjustments in social institutions are fairly stagnant. Therefore, the old social system can not adapt to the requirements of new techno-economic paradigms (TEPs). Consequently, a crisis caused by structural maladjustments emerges and unemployment goes up. The crisis persists until social institutions adjust to fully fit the new technologies. Hence, the emergence of new technologies asks for a comparative reform in social institutions in order to meet the requirement of new TEPs. Furthermore, technological innovations are constantly emerging. Thus TEPs always departs from social institutions. The exact match is just in an ideal state. Therefore, it is inevitable in economic cycles that the loss of old technologies and employment opportunities and the emergence of new employment opportunities. In order to deal with the aggravating unemployment caused by social institution adjustments in TEP conversions, neo-Schumpeterian especially emphasize the necessity of combining innovations in technology and in social institution under the situation of severe technological innovation, and put forward the concept of national innovation systems (Freeman, 1987), which is defined as the national institutions, the incentive structure and the competitiveness which determines the direction and the speed of the technology learning within a country. To build a national innovation system is to attach importance to national factors, and to particular social institutions and cultural backgrounds of the country. It also carries the idea that innovation is the result of complex interactions among various individuals and organizations, and needs government for the system arrangements to get cooperation and coordination among all departments and organizations. To eliminate the neg


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